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Cover of Oilseeds Focus Vol 4 No 3 September 2018
WORKGROUP MINUTES GROUNDNUT GUIDELINES CHEMICAL RESIDUE MRLs: South Africa, Europe and Japan
PLEASE CLICK ON THE LINKS BELOW TO VIEW INDIVIDUAL FILES
 MRLS: SOUTH AFRICA, EUROPE AND JAPAN
Maximum Residue Levels
for Crop Protection Products on Peanuts
South Africa, Europe & Japan
JULY 2014

Disclaimer:  The information in this report is derived from sources which are regarded as generally accurate and reliable. It is of a general nature only and may not be applicable to all circumstances. No responsibility for any error, omission or loss sustained by any person acting or refraining from acting as a result of this report is accepted by the SA Groundnut Forum, Grain SA, PPECB, CropLife South Africa, DAFF, ARC, selection operators or exporters.

Background to Maximum Residue Levels
The data generated from residue trials are used to calculate Maximum Residue Levels (MRL's). The definition of an MRL is: "The maximum concentration of a crop protection product legally permitted in or on food, agricultural commodities or animal foodstuffs." The main purpose of an MRL is to allow crops a legal trading limit. It does not reflect the toxicity of the product, however, it serves as a check that the crop protection product has been used according to Good Agricultural Practice (GAP). MRL's are also known as "Tolerances", in some countries, e.g., the USA.

The MRL is expressed as milligram of residue in a kilogram of commodity/crop, or parts per million (mg/kg or ppm). Residue studies are designed to give a worst case scenario of residue left in the crop. In residue trials, the crop protection product is applied in such a way as to give the maximum benefit to the crop; this will in turn also give the maximum possible residue from the proposed use. This maximum level of residue is produced by applying the highest proposed dose rate, the maximum proposed number of applications and the shortest practicable time between the last application and the crop being harvested. The above conditions are called "Critical Good Agricultural Practice" (cGAP) and will always provide the highest level of residue that could be expected. However, it is important to remember that these conditions are rarely encountered in the field and, depending upon pest, disease or weed pressure, most growers will need to use less than the permitted number of treatments on the crop, at a timing earlier than the last permitted opportunity and often at less than the highest proposed rate. Under these conditions, significantly lower residues will result, as compared to those obtained under cGAP.

This document lists chemicals that are registered for use on groundnuts in South Africa and indicates the MRL's for South Africa, the European Union and Japan. Where possible, PHI's have also been included (a PHI, or Pre-harvest Interval, is the period that should elapse between the final application and harvest). In many cases MRL's do not exist for all the markets and are indicated as NL (Not Listed). In these cases the reader will have to check with local suppliers as to the Agricultural Practice that needs to be followed in order for residues to be below the LOD (Limit of Determination), i.e, undetectable. The reasons for setting an MRL at the LOD are explained in World Trade Organization Document "Questions and Answers on the Procedure to obtain Import Tolerances and the Inclusion of Active Substances for Plant Protection uses in the European Communities List" - Ref G/SPS/GEN/557 dated 29 March 2005 (docsonline.wto.org).

Apart from the active ingredients listed in this document, various other chemicals are mentioned in official and unofficial lists of MRL's in South Africa and elsewhere, but these are not registered for use on groundnuts / peanuts in this country and may therefore not be used on this crop.

Details of MRL's and PHI's appear in the following tables:

TABLE 1. Fungicide products registered for use on South African Peanuts, plus MRL's for RSA and MRL's (Import Tolerances) for the EU and Japan ¹
ACTIVE INGREDIENT DISEASE SOUTH AFRICA EUROPE JAPAN LIMIT OF DETERMI­NATION (LOD)
MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days) MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days) MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days)
azoxystrobin / chlorothalonil early leaf spot, web blotch 0.01 / 0.1 28 0.2 / 0.1 28 0.2 / 0.05 >28
Consult supplier
0.01 / 0.01
azoxystrobin / difenoconazole early leaf spot, web blotch 0.01 / 0.05 28 0.2 / 0.05 28 0.2 / 0.1 28 0.01 / 0.05
benomyl (listed under car­ben­dazim) leaf blotch 0.1 42 0.1 42 0.6 42 0.1
bitertanol leaf spot, leaf blotch, rust 0.05 42 0.02 42 0.1 42 0.02
carbendazim / difenoconazole early leaf spot, late leaf spot, web blotch, rust, grey mould 0.1 / 0.05 21 0.1 / 0.05 21 0.6 / 0.1 21 0.1 / 0.05
carbendazim / epoxiconazole early leaf spot, rust, leaf blotch 0.1 / NL 56 0.1 / 0.05 56 0.6 / NL 56 0.1 / 0.05
carbendazim / flusilazole leaf spot, leaf blotch, Botrytis stem rot, rust 0.1 / 0.05 42 0.1 / 0.02 >42
Consult supplier
0.6 / NL 42 0.1 / 0.02
chlorothalonil leaf spot, Botrytis rot 0.1 42 0.1 42 0.05 >42
Consult supplier
0.01
dichlorophen leaf spot, Phoma 0.05 42 NL 42 NL 42 NL
difenoconazole leaf spot, rust, web blotch 0.05 21 0.05 21 0.1 21 0.05
mancozeb (dithio-carbamates) leaf spots 0.5 21 0.1 >21
Consult supplier
0.1 >21
Consult supplier
0.1
maneb (dithio-carbamates) / zinc oxide leaf spot, late leaf spot, web blotch, rust 0.5 / NL 21 0.1 / NL >21
Consult supplier
0.1 / NL >21
Consult supplier
0.1 / NL
propineb (dithio-carbamates) Cercospora leaf spot 0.5 21 0.1 >21
Consult supplier
0.1 >21
Consult supplier
0.1
tebuconazole late leaf spot, leaf blotch, rust 0.05 42 0.15 42 0.2 42 0.05
thiram crown rot, seed decay NL Seed tmt 0.1 Seed tmt NL Seed tmt 0.1

 
¹ IMPORTANT NOTES

  • Only products (formulations) registered under Act no 36 of 1947 may be used and product label prescriptions should always be followed in accordance with the Act.
  • NL = No MRL is listed in the country. In these cases the MRL will default to Level of Determination (LOD).
  • In addition to production and storage chemicals, care should be taken to use only cleaning and sanitation products acceptable in terms of GAP, GMP and GDP requirements.
  • Always follow requirements of published Food Safety legislation, including GAP, GMP and GDP.


TABLE 2. Insecticide and nematicide products registered for use on South African Peanuts, plus MRL's for RSA and MRL's (Import Tolerances) for the EU and Japan ¹
ACTIVE INGREDIENT PEST SOUTH AFRICA EUROPE JAPAN LIMIT OF DETERMI­NATION (LOD)
MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days) MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days) MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days)
alpha-cypermethrin american bollworm, cutworm 0.05 7 0.1 7 0.05 >7
Consult supplier
0.05
beta-cypermethrin american bollworm 0.05 7 0.1 7 0.05 >7
Consult supplier
0.05
cypermethrin american bollworm 0.05 7 0.1 7 0.05 7 0.05
deltamethrin american bollworm 0.05 7 0.05 7 0.1 7 0.05
demeton-S-methyl aphid 0.1 21 0.02 >>21
Consult supplier
0.05 >21
Consult supplier
0.01
dimethoate aphids 0.1 14 0.05 >14
Consult supplier
1 14 0.05
fenamiphos nematodes 0.05 63 0.02 >63
Consult supplier
0.05 63 0.02
furfural nematodes 0.01 28 1 28 NL 28 0.01
gamma-cyhalothrin american bollworm NL Consult supplier NL Consult supplier NL Consult supplier NL
lambda-cyhalothrin american bollworm 0.05 Consult supplier 0.2 Consult supplier 0.2 Consult supplier 0.02
mercaptothion (malathion) aphids 8.0 7 0.02 >>7
Consult supplier
8 7 0.02
mercaptothion (malathion) / pyrethrins aphids 8.0 / 1.0 7 0.02 / 3.0 >>7
Consult supplier
8.0 / 1.0 7 0.02 / NL
omethoate thrips 0.1 21 0.05 >21
Consult supplier
1 21 0.05
oxamyl nematodes 0.05 80 0.2 80 0.1 80 0.02
oxydemeton-methyl aphids 0.1 21 0.02 >>21
Consult supplier
0.05 >21
Consult supplier
0.01
permethrin american bollworm 0.05 7 0.05 7 0.1 7 0.05
pirimicarb aphids 0.05 21 0.1 21 NL 21 NL
terbufos various soil pests 0.1 90 0.01 >90
Consult supplier
0.05 >90
Consult supplier
0.01
thiometon aphids 0.05 28 NL >28
Consult supplier
0.02 >28
Consult supplier
NL
zeta-cypermethrin american bollworm 0.05 7 0.1 7 0.05 7 0.05

 
¹ IMPORTANT NOTES

  • Only products (formulations) registered under Act no 36 of 1947 may be used and product label prescriptions should always be followed in accordance with the Act.
  • NL = No MRL is listed in the country. In these cases the MRL will default to Level of Determination (LOD).
  • In addition to production and storage chemicals, care should be taken to use only cleaning and sanitation products acceptable in terms of GAP, GMP and GDP requirements.
  • Always follow requirements of published Food Safety legislation, including GAP, GMP and GDP.


TABLE 3. Herbicide products registered for use on South African Peanuts, plus MRL's for RSA and MRL's (Import Tolerances) for the EU and Japan ¹
ACTIVE INGREDIENT SOUTH AFRICA EUROPE JAPAN LIMIT OF DETERMI­NATION (LOD)
MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days) MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days) MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days)
acetochlor 0.02 See note 0.01 See note NL See note 0.01
alachlor 0.05 See note 0.02 See note NL See note 0.02
bendioxide / bentazone NL See note 0.1 See note 0.05 See note 0.1
cycloxydim 0.5 35 0.2 >35
Consult supplier
0.05 >>35
Consult supplier
0.05
diclosulam NL See note NL See note 0.02 See note 0.01
dimethenamid-p / s-dimethenamid NL See note 0.02 See note 0.01 See note 0.02
fluazifop-P-butyl NL 40 0.5 40 5 40 NL
flumetsulam NL 28 NL 28
Consult supplier
0.05 28
Consult supplier
NL
flumioxazin NL See note 0.1 See note 0.02 See note 0.05
fomesafen 0.05 56 0.02 >56
Consult supplier
NL >56
Consult supplier
0.01
haloxyfop-R-methyl 2.0 40 0.05 >40
Consult supplier
0.05 >40
Consult supplier
NL
imazethapyr 0.05 85 NL 85 0.1 85 NL
metazachlor 0.05 See note 0.1 See note NL See note 0.1
metolachlor / metholachlor 0.05 See note 0.05 See note 0.2 See note 0.1
pendimethalin NL See note 0.1 See note 0.2 See note 0.1
propaquizafop NL 40 0.05 >40
Consult supplier
0.05 >40
Consult supplier
0.05
quizalofop-P-ethyl 0.2 24 0.1 >24
Consult supplier
0.1 >24
Consult supplier
0.1
quizalofop-P-tefuryl NL See note 0.1 See note 0.1 See note 0.1
sethoxydim (listed in EU under clethodim) 1.0 See note 5.0 See note 25 See note NL
s-metolachlor / metholachlor-s 0.05 See note 0.05 See note 0.2 See note NL
terbutryn 0.05 See note NL See note NL See note NL
trifluralin 0.05 See note 0.02 See note 0.2 See note 0.02

 
Additional Information
Most herbicide active ingredients either do not have set Withholding Periods (PHI's) or MRL's, or MRL's are set at LOD. This is mainly due to the Agricultural Practice, i.e., pre-plant or early post-plant applications leading to no detectable residue at harvest.

¹ IMPORTANT NOTES

  • Only products (formulations) registered under Act no 36 of 1947 may be used and product label prescriptions should always be followed in accordance with the Act.
  • NL = No MRL is listed in the country. In these cases the MRL will default to Level of Determination (LOD).
  • In addition to production and storage chemicals, care should be taken to use only cleaning and sanitation products acceptable in terms of GAP, GMP and GDP requirements.
  • Always follow requirements of published Food Safety legislation, including GAP, GMP and GDP.


TABLE 4. Post harvest Storage products registered for use on South African Peanuts, plus MRL's for RSA and MRL's (Import Tolerances) for the EU and Japan ¹
ACTIVE INGREDIENT PEST SOUTH AFRICA EUROPE JAPAN LIMIT OF DETERMI­NATION (LOD)
MRL (ppm) / mg/kg MRL (ppm) / mg/kg MRL (ppm) / mg/kg
Aluminium phosphide. Residues as phosphine (hydrogen phosphide) Pests of stored product NL 0.05 0.1 0.01
deltamethrin Pests of stored product 0.05 0.05 0.1 0.05
Magnesium phosphide. Residues as phosphine (hydrogen phosphide) Pests of stored product NL 0.05 0.1 0.01
permethrin Pests of stored product 0.05 0.05 0.1 0.05
piperonyl / butoxide Pests of stored product 10 Not classified as a plant protection product 1 NL
pyrethrins Pests of stored product 1.0 3 1 NL

 
Additional Information

  • Fumigation is the process of killing insects with a toxic gas, phosphine (PH3) being the most commonly used. Phosphine concentration and exposure time are both important in killing insects, but time is more important than concentration. Phosphine treatment involves 5-14 days under fumigation, followed by 2-5 days ventilation and a further two days withholding period. The overall fumigation can take up to 21 days where kernel temperature is below 25°C and fans are not used to purge the gas during venting. Fumigated grain must be vented for the required time before it can be legally transported.
  • All other insecticides used in storage facilities e.g. pyrethroids, must comply with the importing country's legislation. Refer to Table 2 for specific import tolerances set for these products.

¹ IMPORTANT NOTES

  • Use of chemical products (fumigation or otherwise) should be managed according to the HACCP plan of the processing facility if not handled by the farmer. Chemical contamination from these products fall outside the scope of pre-farm gate control points and care should be taken when following label instructions to ensure ventilation after treatment. In all cases NO RESIDUE is allowed to remain.
  • Only products (formulations) registered under Act no 36 of 1947 may be used and product label prescriptions should always be followed in accordance with the Act..
  • NL = No MRL is listed in the country. In these cases the MRL will default to Level of Determination (LOD).
  • In addition to production and storage chemicals, care should be taken to use only cleaning and sanitation products acceptable in terms of GAP, GMP and GDP requirements.
  • Always follow requirements of published Food Safety legislation, including GAP, GMP and GDP.


References

  1. Govt. Notice No. GNR 246 of 11 February 1994, as amended by Govt. Notices 494 of 8 June 2001, R525 of 3 May 2002 & R247 of 24 March 2005.
  2. Govt. Notices R1047 of 20 October 2006, R548 of 17 June 2010, R420 of 13 May 2011 and R46 of 19 January 2012.
  3. ANON. 2007. A Guide for the Control of Plant Pests (40th Edition) Department of Agriculture.
  4. VAN ZYL, Kathy. 2011. The Control of Fungal, Viral and Bacterial Diseases in Plants. (First Edition), AVCASA.
  5. VAN ZYL, Kathy. 2012. A Guide for the Chemical Control of Weeds in South Africa. (First Edition), AVCASA.
  6. CropLife South Africa Agricultural Remedies Database: www.croplife.co.za
  7. EU Database on MRL's: (Latest update 18 April 2014) ec.europa.eu/sanco_pesticides
  8. The Japan Food Chemical Research Foundation: Revision of MRL's of Agricultural chemicals. (Latest update 4 January, 2014) m5.ws001.squarestart.ne.jp
  9. South African Database on MRL's www.agri-intel.com
  10. National Department of Agriculture, South Africa www.nda.agric.za

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