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Cover of Oilseeds Focus Vol 5 No 1 March 2019
WORKGROUP MINUTES GROUNDNUT GUIDELINES CHEMICAL RESIDUE MRLs: South Africa, Europe and Japan
PLEASE CLICK ON THE LINKS BELOW TO VIEW INDIVIDUAL FILES
 MRLS: SOUTH AFRICA, EUROPE AND JAPAN
Maximum Residue Levels
for Crop Protection Products on Peanuts
South Africa, Europe & Japan
SEPTEMBER 2018

Disclaimer:  The information in this report is derived from sources which are regarded as generally accurate and reliable. It is of a general nature only and may not be applicable to all circumstances. No responsibility for any error, omission or loss sustained by any person acting or refraining from acting as a result of this report is accepted by the SA Groundnut Forum, Grain SA, PPECB, CropLife South Africa, DAFF, ARC, selection operators, exporters, or the compilers of this report.

Background to Maximum Residue Limits
The data generated from residue trials are used to calculate Maximum Residue Limits (MRL's). The definition of an MRL is: "The maximum concentration of a crop protection product legally permitted in or on food, agricultural commodities or animal foodstuffs." The main purpose of an MRL is to allow crops a legal trading limit. It does not reflect the toxicity of the product; however, it serves as a check that the crop protection product has been used according to Good Agricultural Practice (GAP). MRL's are also known as "Tolerances" in some countries e.g. the USA.

The MRL is expressed as milligram of residue in a kilogram of commodity/crop, or in parts per million (mg/kg or ppm). Residue studies are designed to give a worst case scenario of residue left in the crop. In residue trials, the crop protection product is applied in such a way as to give the maximum benefit to the crop; this will in turn also give the maximum possible residue from the proposed use. This maximum level of residue is produced by applying the highest proposed dose rate, the maximum proposed number of applications and the shortest practicable time between the last application and the crop being harvested. The above conditions are called "Critical Good Agricultural Practice" (cGAP) and will always provide the highest level of residue that could be expected. However, it is important to remember that these conditions are rarely encountered in the field and, depending upon pest, disease or weed pressure, most growers will need to use less than the permitted number of treatments on the crop, at a timing earlier than the last permitted opportunity and often at less than the highest proposed rate. Under these conditions, significantly lower residues will result, as compared to those obtained under cGAP.

This document lists chemicals that are registered for use on groundnuts in South Africa and indicates the MRL's for South Africa, the European Union and Japan. Where possible, PHI's have also been included (a PHI, or Pre-harvest Interval, is the period that should elapse between the final application and harvest). In many cases MRL's do not exist for all the markets and are indicated as NL (Not Listed). In these cases the reader will have to check with local suppliers as to the Agricultural Practice that needs to be followed in order for residues to be below the LOD (Limit of Determination), i.e., undetectable. The reasons for setting an MRL at the LOD are explained in World Trade Organization Document "Questions and Answers on the Procedure to obtain Import Tolerances and the Inclusion of Active Substances for Plant Protection uses in the European Communities List" - Ref G/SPS/GEN/557 dated 29 March 2005.

Apart from the active ingredients listed in this document, various other chemicals are mentioned in official and unofficial lists of MRL's in South Africa and elsewhere, but these are not registered for use on groundnuts/peanuts in this country and may therefore not be used on this crop.

Details of MRL's and PHI's appear in the following tables:

TABLE 1. Fungicide products registered for use on South African Peanuts, plus MRL's for RSA and MRL's (Import Tolerances) for the EU and Japan ¹
ACTIVE INGREDIENT DISEASE SOUTH AFRICA EUROPE JAPAN LIMIT OF DETERMI­NATION (LOD)
MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days) MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days) MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days)
azoxystrobin / chlorothalonil early leaf spot, web/leaf blotch 0.01 / 0.1 28 0.2 / 0.1 28 0.2 / 0.05 >28
Consult supplier
0.01 / 0.01
azoxystrobin / difenoconazole early leaf spot, web/leaf blotch 0.01 / 0.05 28 0.2 / 0.05 28 0.2 / 0.1 >28 Consult supplier 0.01 / 0.05
azoxystrobin / epoxiconazole early leaf spot, rust, web/leaf blotch 0.01 / NL 28 0.2 / 0.05 >28 Consult supplier 0.2 / 0.05 >28 Consult supplier 0.01 / 0.05
azoxystrobin / flusilazole early leaf spot, late leaf spot, rust, web/leaf blotch 0.01 / 0.05 42 0.2 / 0.01 >42 Consult supplier 0.2 / NL >42 Consult supplier 0.01 / 0.01
benomyl (listed under carbendazim) early leaf spot, web/leaf blotch 0.1 42 0.1 42 0.6 42 0.1
carbendazim / difenoconazole early leaf spot, grey mould, late leaf spot, rust, web/leaf blotch 0.1 / 0.05 21 0.1 / 0.05 21 0.6 / 0.01 >21 Consult supplier 0.1 / 0.05
carbendazim / epoxiconazole early leaf spot, rust, web/leaf blotch 0.1 / NL 56 0.1 / 0.05 >56 Consult supplier 0.6 / 0.05 >56 Consult supplier 0.1 / 0.05
carbendazim / flusilazole Botrytis stem rot, early leaf spot, late leaf spot, rust, web/leaf blotch 0.1 / 0.05 42 0.1 / 0.01 >42 Consult supplier 0.6 / NL >42 Consult supplier 0.1 / 0.01
chlorothalonil Botrytis rot, early leaf spot, late leaf spot, net blotch, peppery leaf spot, rust, web/leaf blotch 0.1 42 0.1 42 0.05 >42 Consult supplier 0.01
dichlorophen early leaf spot, web/leaf blotch 0.05 42 0.01 >42 Consult supplier NL >42 Consult supplier NL
difenoconazole early leaf spot, late leaf spot, rust, web/leaf blotch 0.05 21 0.05 21 0.01 >21 Consult supplier 0.05
epoxiconazole / thiophanate-methyl early leaf spot, late leaf spot, rust, web/leaf blotch NL / NL 56 0.05 / 0.1 >56 Consult supplier 0.05 / NL >56 Consult supplier 0.05 / 0.1
fludioxonil damping-off, seed decay, seedling blight NL Seed tmt 0.01 Seed tmt NL Seed tmt 0.01
fludioxonil / mefenoxam (metalaxyl-M) damping-off, seed decay, seedling blight NL / NL Seed tmt 0.01 / 0.01 Seed tmt NL / 0.1 Seed tmt 0.01 / 0.01
furfural soil fungi 0.01 28 1.0 28 NL >28 Consult supplier 0.01
mancozeb (dithio-carbamates) black hull, crown rot, damping-off, early leaf spot, Phyllosticta leaf spot, seed decay 0.5 21 0.1 >21 Consult supplier 0.1 >21 Consult supplier 0.1
maneb (dithio-carbamates) / zinc oxide early leaf spot, late leaf spot, rust, web/leaf blotch 0.5 / NL 21 0.1 / NL >21 Consult supplier 0.1 / NL >21 Consult supplier 0.1 / NL
propineb (dithio-carbamates / propylene-diamine) early leaf spot 0.5 21 0.1 >21 Consult supplier 0.1 >21 Consult supplier 0.1
tebuconazole early leaf spot, late leaf spot, rust, web/leaf blotch 0.05 42 0.15 42 0.2 42 0.02
thiram (dithio-carbamates) crown rot, seed decay NL Seed tmt 0.1* Seed tmt NL Seed tmt 0.1
Trichoderma harzianum Rhizoctonia, Fusarium NL Consult supplier No MRL required Consult supplier NL Consult supplier NL

 
* NOTE: Thiram has increasingly come under regulatory pressure in the EU and certain end uses for this a.i. have recently been withdrawn. It is possible that the MRL will be cancelled in the future. Consult supplier in the event of any uncertainty.


TABLE 2. Insecticide and nematicide products registered for use on South African Peanuts, plus MRL's for RSA and MRL's (Import Tolerances) for the EU and Japan ¹
ACTIVE INGREDIENT DISEASE SOUTH AFRICA EUROPE JAPAN LIMIT OF DETERMI­NATION (LOD)
MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days) MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days) MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days)
alpha-cypermethrin African bollworm, cutworms 0.05 7 0.1 7 0.05 7 0.05
Bacillus thuringiensis army worm, African bollworm, semi-looper NL Consult supplier 0.01 Consult supplier NL Consult supplier NL
beta-cyfluthrin cutworms NL ** See below 0.02 ** See below 0.5 ** See below 0.02
beta-cypermethrin African bollworm, cutworms 0.05 7 0.1 7 0.05 7 0.05
bollworm nucleopolyhe-drovirus African bollworm NL Consult supplier No MRL required Consult supplier NL Consult supplier NL
chlorantraniliprole / lambda-cyhalothrin African bollworm, army worm, fall army worm, false army worm 0.01 / 0.2 14 0.06 / 0.2 14 0.06 / 0.2 14 0.01 / 0.02
cypermethrin African bollworm, cutworms 0.05 7 0.1 7 0.05 7 0.05
deltamethrin African bollworm, cutworms 0.05 7 0.02 >7 Consult supplier NL >7 Consult supplier 0.01
demeton-S-methyl aphids 0.1 21 0.01 >>21 Consult supplier 0.05 >21 Consult supplier 0.01
dimethoate aphids 0.1 14 0.01 >>14 Consult supplier 1.0 14 0.01
emamectin benzoate army worm, fall army worm, false army worm 0.01 35 0.01 35 NL >35 Consult supplier 0.01
esfenvalerate cutworms NL ** See below 0.05 ** See below NL ** See below 0.05
fenamiphos nematodes 0.05 63 0.02 >63 Consult supplier 0.05 63 0.02
fenvalerate cutworms NL ** See below 0.05 ** See below 0.1 ** See below 0.05
furfural nematodes 0.01 28 1.0 28 NL >28 Consult supplier 0.01
gamma-cyhalothrin African bollworm, cutworms NL Consult supplier 0.01 Consult supplier NL Consult supplier NL
lambda-cyhalothrin African bollworm, cutworms 0.2 Consult supplier 0.2 Consult supplier 0.2 Consult supplier 0.02
lufenuron army worm, fall army worm, false army worm 0.02 35 0.01 >35 Consult supplier NL >35 Consult supplier 0.01
mercaptothion (malathion) aphids 8.0 7 0.02 >>7 Consult supplier 8.0 7 0.02
mercaptothion (malathion) / pyrethrins aphids 8.0 / 1.0 7 0.02 / 3.0 >>7 Consult supplier 8.0 / 1.0 7 0.02 / NL
omethoate thrips 0.1 21 0.01 >>21 Consult supplier 1.0 21 0.01
oxamyl nematodes 0.05 80 0.01 >80 Consult supplier 0.1 80 0.01
pirimicarb aphids 0.05 21 0.02 >21 Consult supplier NL >21 Consult supplier 0.02
terbufos astylus beetle, black maize beetle, false wireworm, nematodes, rootworm, wireworm 0.1 90 0.01 >>90 Consult supplier 0.05 >90 Consult supplier 0.01
thiamethoxam aphids, thrips, white grubs, wireworm 0.02 Seed tmt 0.02 Seed tmt 0.02 Seed tmt 0.02
zeta-cypermethrin African bollworm, cutworms 0.05 7 0.1 7 0.05 7 0.05

 
** ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Certain insecticide active ingredients used for cutworm control either do not have set Withholding Periods (PHI's) or MRL's, or MRL's are set at LOD. This is due to the Agricultural Practice, i.e., early post-plant applications leading to no detectable residue at harvest.


TABLE 3. Herbicide products registered for use on South African Peanuts, plus MRL's for RSA and MRL's (Import Tolerances) for the EU and Japan ¹
ACTIVE INGREDIENT SOUTH AFRICA EUROPE JAPAN LIMIT OF DETERMI­NATION (LOD)
MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days) MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days) MRL (ppm) / mg/kg PHI (days)
acetochlor 0.02 *** See below 0.01 *** See below NL *** See below 0.01
acetochlor / benoxacor (safener) 0.02 / NL *** See below 0.01 / NL *** See below NL / 0.01 *** See below 0.01 / 0.01
acetochlor / dichlormid (safener) 0.02 / NL *** See below 0.01 / NL *** See below NL / NL *** See below 0.01 / NL
alachlor 0.05 *** See below 0.02 *** See below 0.02 *** See below 0.02
bendioxide (bentazone) NL *** See below 0.05 *** See below 0.05 *** See below 0.05
clethodim 1.0 28 5.0 28 5.0 28 NL
cycloxydim 0.5 35 0.2 >35 Consult supplier 0.05 >>35 Consult supplier 0.05
diclosulam NL *** See below NL *** See below 0.02 *** See below 0.01
dimethenamid-p (s-dimethenamid) NL *** See below 0.01 *** See below 0.01 *** See below 0.01
fluazifop-P-butyl NL 40 0.01 >40 Consult supplier 2.0 >40 Consult supplier 0.01
flufenacet NL *** See below 0.05 *** See below NL *** See below 0.05
flumetsulam NL 28 0.01 >28 Consult supplier 0.05 >28 Consult supplier NL
flumetsulam / s-metolachlor NL / NL *** See below 0.01 / 0.05 *** See below 0.05 / 0.2 *** See below NL / 0.05
flumioxazin (flumioxazine) NL *** See below 0.05 *** See below 0.02 *** See below 0.05
fomesafen 0.05 56 0.02 >56 Consult supplier NL >56 Consult supplier 0.02
haloxyfop-R-methyl 2.0 40 0.01 >>40 Consult supplier 0.05 >>40 Consult supplier 0.01
imazethapyr 0.05 85 0.01 >85 Consult supplier 0.1 85 NL
metazachlor 0.05 *** See below 0.02 *** See below NL *** See below 0.02
metolachlor 0.05 *** See below 0.05 *** See below 0.2 *** See below 0.05
metolachlor / benoxacor (safener) 0.05 / NL *** See below 0.05 / NL *** See below 0.2 / 0.01 *** See below 0.05 / 0.01
metolachlor / dichlormid (safener) 0.05 / NL *** See below 0.05 / NL *** See below 0.2 / NL *** See below 0.05 / NL
metolachlor / safener 0.05 / – *** See below 0.05 / – *** See below 0.2 / – *** See below 0.05 / –
pendimethalin NL *** See below 0.05 *** See below 0.2 *** See below 0.05
propaquizafop NL 40 0.05 >40 Consult supplier 0.05 >40 Consult supplier 0.05
quizalofop-P-ethyl 0.2 24 0.1 >24 Consult supplier 0.1 >24 Consult supplier 0.1
quizalofop-P-tefuryl NL *** See below 0.1 *** See below 0.1 *** See below 0.1
s-metolachlor (metholachlor-s) NL *** See below 0.05 *** See below 0.2 *** See below 0.05
s-metolachlor / benoxacor (safener) NL / NL *** See below 0.05 / NL *** See below 0.2 / 0.01 *** See below 0.05 / 0.01
terbutryn 0.05 *** See below 0.01 *** See below NL *** See below NL
trifluralin 0.05 *** See below 0.01 *** See below 0.2 *** See below 0.01

 
*** Additional Information: Most herbicide active ingredients either do not have set Withholding Periods (PHI's) or MRL's, or MRL's are set at LOD. This is mainly due to the Agricultural Practice, i.e., pre-plant or early post-plant applications leading to no detectable residue at harvest.


TABLE 4. Post harvest Storage products registered for use on South African Peanuts, plus MRL's for RSA and MRL's (Import Tolerances) for the EU and Japan ****
ACTIVE INGREDIENT PEST SOUTH AFRICA EUROPE JAPAN LIMIT OF DETERMI­NATION (LOD)
MRL (ppm) / mg/kg MRL (ppm) / mg/kg MRL (ppm) / mg/kg
Aluminium phosphide. Residues as phosphine (hydrogen phosphide) Pests of stored product NL 0.05 0.1 0.01
Magnesium phosphide. Residues as phosphine (hydrogen phosphide) Pests of stored product NL 0.05 0.1 0.01
piperonyl butoxide Pests of stored product 10.0 Not classified as a plant protection product 1.0 NL
pirimiphos-methyl Pests of stored product 5.0 0.5 Consult supplier 1.0 Consult supplier NL
pyrethrins Pests of stored product 1.0 3.0 1.0 NL

 
**** Additional Information

  • Fumigation is the process of killing insects with a toxic gas, phosphine (PH3) being the most commonly used. Phosphine concentration and exposure time are both important in killing insects, but time is more important than concentration. Phosphine treatment involves 5-14 days under fumigation, followed by 2-5 days ventilation and a further two days withholding period. The overall fumigation can take up to 21 days where kernel temperature is below 25°C and fans are not used to purge the gas during venting. Fumigated grain must be vented for the required time before it can be legally transported.
  • All other insecticides used in storage facilities e.g. pyrethroids, must comply with the importing country's legislation. Refer to Table 2 for specific import tolerances set for these products.

IMPORTANT NOTES

  • Use of chemical products (fumigation or otherwise) should be managed according to the HACCP plan of the processing facility if not handled by the farmer. Chemical contamination from these products fall outside the scope of pre-farm gate control points and care should be taken when following label instructions to ensure ventilation after treatment. In all cases NO RESIDUE is allowed to remain.
  • Only products (formulations) registered under Act no. 36 of 1947 may be used and product label prescriptions should always be followed in accordance with the Act.
  • NL = No MRL is listed in the country. In these cases the MRL will default to Level of Determination (LOD).
  • In addition to production and storage chemicals, care should be taken to use only cleaning and sanitation products acceptable in terms of GAP, GMP and GDP requirements.
  • Always follow requirements of published Food Safety legislation, including GAP, GMP and GDP.


References

  1. Govt. Notice No. GNR 246 of 11 February 1994, as amended by Govt. Notices 494 of 8 June 2001, R525 of 3 May 2002 & R247 of 24 March 2005.
  2. Govt. Notices R1047 of 20 October 2006, R548 of 17 June 2010, R420 of 13 May 2011 and R46 of 19 January 2012.
  3. A Guide to Crop Pest Management in South Africa.
    VAN ZYL, Kathy. 2016 (Second Edition), AVCASA..
  4. The Chemical Control of Plant Diseases.
    VAN ZYL, Kathy. 2017 (Third Edition), AVCASA.
  5. A Guide for the Control of Weeds in South Africa.
    VAN ZYL, Kathy. 2017 (Third Edition), AVCASA.
  6. CropLife South Africa Agricultural Remedies Database: croplife.co.za
  7. EU Pesticide Database: ec.europa.eu
  8. The Japan Food Chemical Research Foundation: Revision of MRL's of Agricultural chemicals – ffcr.or.jp
  9. South African Database on MRL's – agri-intel.com
  10. National Department of Agriculture, South Africa – nda.agric.za
  11. Questions and Answers on the Procedure to Obtain Import Tolerances and the Inclusion of Active Substances for Plant Protection uses in the European Communities list – view PDF.

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