Continuation Research Projects
- Evaluation of commercially available sunflower cultivars
- Oilseeds South African Soybean Crop Quality Survey
- Studies on the use of bio-control agents on groundnut to control Aspergillus spp. and other soil pathogens
- The funding of the Supply and Demand Estimates Committee
- Alternaria blight of sunflower and its control
- Oilseeds South African Sunflower Crop Quality Survey
- The role of seedling diseases in poor establishment of sunflower in South Africa
- National soybean cultivar trials
- Oilseeds information
- Generic marketing of soybeans in human nutrition
- Cultivar evaluation of oil and protein seeds in the winter rainfall area
- Biological control of sclerotinia of sunflower
- The evaluation of locally produced full-fat canola and canola oilcake meal as protein sources in diets for slaughter ostriches
Evaluation of commercially available sunflower cultivars
Cultivar trials from previous years showed that the mean yield of the five best cultivars is usually about 0.27 t ha-1 higher than the overall mean yield of all the tested cultivars. Considering that the national mean yield that farmers obtain is normally between 1.0 and 1.4 t ha-1, it is clear that cultivar selection has a significant effect on the profitability of sunflower production. This project is the only independent source of information on sunflower cultivar performance, available to farmers. The aim of this project is to evaluate commercially available sunflower cultivars at different localities in collaboration with seed companies. During the 2017/2018 season, 19 cultivars were evaluated in 12 successful locality trials. The highest trial mean yield of 3.39 t ha-1 was obtained at Boskop and the lowest of 1.32 t ha-1, at Senekal with late planting date of 28 January. The seven best performing cultivars, in terms of average yield calculated over localities, were PAN 7160 CLP, P 65 LL02, PAN 7100, AGSUN 5272, PAN 7156 CLP, AGSUN 5103 CLP and AGSUN 5106 CLP. Eight Clearfield and Clearfield plus cultivars were entered and two of these cultivars PAN 7160 CLP and PAN 7102 CLP had the highest yields of 2.57 and 2.46 t ha-1, respectively. Twelve cultivar were evaluated at 34 localities for the last three seasons and the cultivars AN 7160 CLP, PAN 7100, PAN 7080 and PAN 7102 CLP preformed the best in terms of seed yield. Probability to obtain an above average yield was calculated for all cultivars across the usual range of yield potentials. That was done for the 19 cultivars during the 2017/18 growing season, for the 13 cultivars that have been tested at 24 localities for the last two-seasons and for the 12 cultivars that have been tested at 34 localities for the last three seasons. The yield probability method is highly recommended for cultivar selection.
Oilseeds South African Soybean Crop Quality Survey
During the harvesting of the 2016/2017 production season, which was the sixth annual soybean crop quality survey conducted by the SAGL, a representative sample of each delivery of soybeans at the various silos was taken according to the prescribed grading regulations. One hundred and fifty composite soybean samples, proportionally representing the different production regions, were analysed for different quality parameters. The samples were graded, milled and chemically analysed for moisture, protein, fat and ash content. Fifteen randomly selected samples were analysed to quantitatively determine the presence of genetically modified soybeans.
The goal of this crop quality survey is to accumulate quality data on the commercial soybean crop on a national level. This valuable data reveal general tendencies, highlight quality differences in commercial soybeans produced in different local production regions and provide important information on the quality of commercial soybeans intended for export. With this data, SAGL is building up a database with quality data over different production seasons which can be used for decision making processes. The results are available on the SAGL website. The hard copy reports are distributed to all the Directly Affected Groups and interested parties. The report is also available for download in a PDF format from the website. The 2016/2017 Report of the National Soybean Cultivar trials conducted by the ARC-Grain Crops Institute is also included in the report, as is the national grading regulations as published in the Government Gazette of 21 April 2017.
Summary of results
Eighty-eight percent (132) of the 150 samples analysed for the purpose of this survey were graded as Grade SB1 and 18 of the samples were downgraded to COSB (Class Other Soya Beans). During the previous two seasons, 11% (2015/2016) and 13% (2014/2015) of the samples were downgraded to COSB.
- Two of the 18 samples were downgraded as a result of the percentage other grain present in the sample exceeding the maximum permissible deviation of 0.5%.
- One sample was downgraded as a result of the percentage sunflower seed present in the sample exceeding the maximum permissible deviation of 0.1%.
- Eleven samples were downgraded as a result of the percentage soiled soybeans present in the sample exceeding the maximum permissible deviation of 10%.
- One sample was downgraded as a result of the presence of poisonous seeds (Convolvulus sp.) exceeding the maximum permissible number, namely 7 per 1,000g.
- The remaining three samples were downgraded as a result of a combination of one or more of the following deviations exceeding the maximum permissible deviation: percentage foreign matter, percentage other grain and collective deviations.
The number of samples containing sclerotia from the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, almost tripled from the previous season (from 36 to 105 samples). The three highest percentages of sclerotia observed (0.38%, 0.36% and 0.30%) were samples from Mpumalanga. These percentages are however still well below the maximum permissible level of 4%. The national weighted average percentage this season was 0.07% compared to the 0.04% of the previous season.
All fifteen samples tested for genetic modification (GM), tested positive for the presence of the CP4 EPSPS trait (Roundup Ready®).
The nutritional component analyses, namely crude protein, -fat, -fibre and ash are reported on a dry/moisture-free basis (db) for the current as well as the previous surveys. For comparison purposes the national 'as is' basis results were also calculated using the weighted national average values. As requested by the Research Priority Committee, both dry basis and 'as is' results will be included in future survey reports. The graphs below provide comparisons between provinces over seasons for the nutritional components mentioned above.
Studies on the use of bio-control agents on groundnut to control Aspergillus spp. and other soil pathogens
Pre-harvest infection of groundnut (Arachis hypogea) during drought stress by strains of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus is a major health and food safety concern worldwide. The fungi release aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic and hepatotoxic at levels of parts per billion. In this study, a formulated biocontrol agent, Trichoderma harzianum strain kd (Tkd), was used to control Aspergillus flavus infection of groundnut in the field. Groundnut seeds treated with Tkd developed more root biomass than the control (untreated with Tkd). Growth of Trichoderma mycelium from sterilized roots of groundnuts grown on Trichoderma selective media indicates root colonization of the intercellular spaces in groundnut roots by Tkd. Even the control plants showed evidence of root colonization by Trichoderma but at much lower levels. This shows that groundnuts are particularly a compatible host of Trichoderma acting as an endophyte. Under scanning electron microscopy, T. harzianum showed the ability to parasitize A. flavus by coiling around A. flavus hyphae, penetrating and degrading the mycelium of A. flavus. The levels of aflatoxin B 1contamination from Aspergillus infection were determined using a MaxiSig-nal® ELISA test kit. The aflatoxin levels of A. flavus-inoculated control plants were significantly (p <0.001) higher than that of the Tkd-treated plants, by 57% and 65%, in two trials. Yields from plants treated with Tkd were 35% and 49% higher than that from the control (untreated with Tkd) plants in these field trials. It can be concluded that application of Tkd to groundnut seeds may reduce infection of the groundnut seeds by Aspergillus flavus, and hence, it may reduce the contamination of the seed by aflatoxin, especially under drought stress condition. Concurrently, Tkd treatment may result in yields being enhanced by more than 35%.
The funding of the Supply and Demand Estimates Committee
Purpose of the South African Supply & Demand Estimates Reports (SASDE)
The SASDE report provides an analysis of the status of market fundamentals for major grains and oilseeds in South Africa on monthly basis. The report is widely considered as benchmark whereby private and public agricultural forecasts are compared. The report is normally releases within four to five working days after the Crop Estimates Committee (CEC) release its monthly crop estimates report. The report is released to the public domain in accordance with approval of the South African Competition authorities' consent.
Budget for Supply & Demand Estimates Committee (S&DEC)
The S&DEC is dependent on the NAMC, Maize, Winter Cereal, Sorghum and Protein Oilseeds Development Trusts for funding. The previous arrangement between the respective organisations was that between 50% and 55% of the budget comes from the NAMC, while the industry Trusts contribute the balance of the funding.
The funds that are received from the NAMC together with the four Trusts were used to fund:
- Salaries for the Grain specialist
- Allowances of three independent specialists
- Training for the specialist
- Admin and office equipment (NAMC)
- Liaison with industry
- AEASA conference for the grain specialist
- Attendance of other related functions
The SASDE report is published on the same day as when the S&DEC meets. The time of publication is after 12h00 on the NAMC website. The readers of the report include:
- Financial and investment institutions
- Government officials
- Grain millers
- Oilseed processors
- Feed manufacturers
- Grain and Oilseed traders
- Grain and Oilseed storage handlers
- Baking industry
- Research institutions and Transport organizations
The mutual understanding and collaboration of the NAMC and the Grain and Oilseeds Trusts has significantly contributed to the functioning of S&DEC.
Alternaria blight of sunflower and its control
The crop: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
The sunflower is a member of the Asteraceae, a large family of flowering plants occurring throughout the world, although a few are of economic importance. The sunflowers of the genus Helianthus have 67 species all of which are native to North and South America and 17 of which are cultivated (Weiss, 1983). Two of these species, H. annuus L., the common sunflower, and H. tuberosus L., the Jerusalem artichoke, are cultivated as food plants and several species are grown as ornamentals (Carter, 1978).
In South Africa, the sunflower crop is the third most important field crop after maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and is the most important oil crop (Grain South Africa, 2010). Other important oil crops include soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], rapeseed (Brasicca rapa L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) (Carter, 1978). Sunflower oil is considered to be of very high quality and generally sells for a premium in world markets over soybean and rapeseed oils (Robbelen et al., 1989). In South Africa and for the periods between 2001 and 2012, the local annual production of sunflower seed ranged between 500 000 to 700 000 tons. The major production areas in South Africa are North West, Free State, Limpopo and Mpumalanga, with North West producing half of the annual production (DAFF, 2012).
The sunflower crop is propagated by seeds. It is recorded that more than 24 fungal species are seed-borne in the crop. One of the predominant seed-borne pathogens are the Alternaria species. Alternaria spp. are the cause of leaf blight of sunflower (Nahar et al., 2005). They are known to infect all parts of the plant viz., leaf, petiole, stem, all flower parts, and seeds (Kim and Mathur, 2006). Sunflower seed infection with Alternaria spp. causes bio-deterioration and reduction in germination in the seeds (Ojiambo et al., 1998).
The pathogen: The genus Alternaria Nees
Alternaria Nees is a cosmopolitan fungal genus that includes saprophytic, endophytic and pathogenic species. The genus Alternaria includes nearly 300 species that occur worldwide in a variety of habitats (Pryor and Gilbertson, 2000). The most common Alternaria species associated with sunflower leaf blight is A. helianthi (Hanford) Tubaki and Nishihara (Prasad et al., 2009). Other common Alternaria species reported on sunflower include, A. alternata (Fries) Keissler, A. zinnia Ellis, A. helianthicola Rao and Raj, A. tenuissima (Fries) Wiltshire, A. leucanthemi Nelen (Simmons and Grosier), A. helianthicola (Rao and Raj), A. longissima (Deighton and MacGarvey), A. helianthinficiens (Simmons), and A. protenta Simmons (Lapagodi and Thanassoulopoulos, 1998). Alternaria helianthi has been recorded as the main cause of Alternaria leaf spot in South Africa (Van der Westhuizen and Holtzhausen, 1980). However, Kgatle et al., (2012) reported a new pathogen that causes Alternaria blight is A. helianthicola which forms part of the small-spored Alternaria species.
Alternaria species affects all aerial parts of the plant such as the leaf, petiole, stem, floral parts and seeds of sunflower plants during emergence and throughout the growing stages of the plant (Malone and Muskett, 1997). The symptoms caused by Alternaria species on sunflower normally appear as dark brown, oval to circular spots with a pale margin and yellow halo. The spots become irregular by coalescing, leading to blight and defoliation and death of the plant (Cho and Yu, 2000).
Epidemics of Alternaria blight of sunflowers are most common and severe in areas that experience extended periods of wet weather in summer accompanied by mean daily temperatures between 25 and 30°C (Reis et al., 2006). Alternaria species are reported to reduce seed and oil yield by 27 to 80% and 17 to 33%, respectively, and can cause germination losses (Calvert et al., 2005). The disease significantly reduces head diameters and numbers of seeds produced per head. The reduction in seed content caused by Alternaria blight is an economic concern, because growers receive a price premium or a dockage based on oil content (Carson, 1985).
The aim of this research is to have a comprehensive understanding of Alternaria species associated with sunflower. The focus will be on (i) determining the distribution of Alternaria leaf spot (ALS) in sunflower production areas, (ii) determining the causal agents of ALS using molecular and morphological techniques, (iii) determining the effect of ALS on seed health and seed vigor, (iv) determining the most effective chemical and biocontrol agents that can limit the spread of ALS.
- To determine the distribution of Alternaria blight by surveying the major sunflower growing areas in South Africa for Alternaria leaf spot.
- To identify the causal agents of Alternaria blight based on morphology and molecular techniques.
- To determine the seed health and seed vigour of sunflower seed lots.
Progress to date
- To determine the seed health and seed vigour of sunflower seed lots.
- The distribution of Alternaria leaf blight in the survey major sunflower production farms of South Africa and cultivar trials to determine if Alternaria leaf blight has any association or specificity to a certain sunflower cultivar have been done. The survey showed that Alternaria leaf blight is widespread in the sunflower production areas (Fig. 1), and samples collected during the survey were used for subsequent research in identification studies. This has been completed and a publication is being finalized.
The main pathogen present in the leaf blight lesions have been identified using morphological and molecular techniques to identify the causal agents of Alternaria blight isolated from South African sunflower production areas. Alternaria helianthi was not isolated from any of the sunflower lesions, with only Alternaria sect. Alternaria isolates retrieved from the symptomatic tissue. Molecular identification using the ITS, GAPDH, RPB2 gene, Alt a1 and the TEF-1α gene regions was done to support the morphological identification based on the three dimensional sporulation patterns the of Alternaria species (Fig 1). Furthermore, this study aimed at evaluating the pathogenicity of the Alternaria isolates and their potential as causal agents of Alternaria leaf blight of sunflower. Pathogenicity tests showed that all the Alternaria alternata isolates are capable of causing Alternaria leaf blight of sunflower as seen in the field (Fig 2). This is the first report of A. alternata causing leaf blight of sunflower in South Africa.
Alternaria species have been associated with sunflower seeds and reported to affect seed quality. This research will
- determine if mycoflora associated with sunflower has an effect on seed vigour and seed health; and
- determine the location of the sunflower seeds with the most Alternaria species inoculum.
Standard germination and seed health (agar plate method) tests were conducted on nineteen sunflower seed-lots collected from various parts of South Africa. Standard germination tests were done on paper dolls according to the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) regulations. The agar plate method was used for the detection of mycoflora on the seeds. The seeds were placed onto potato dextrose agar (PDA) and then incubated at 25°C under 12 hours of alternating dark and UV light cycles. Germination percentages ranged from 70 to 91%. Germination was found to be influenced by the severity of seed infection, although the correlation was a fairly weak (56%). Five genera were isolated from the seeds, namely Trichoderma, Stemphylium, Rhizopus, Fusarium and Alternaria species which were there most predominant having a disease incidence ranging from 28 to 82% between the various seed-lots. Germination tests showed that the germinated seedlings of the various seed lots had seedling blight. Seed component tests will be done to determine the location of infection using agar plate method, qPCR and digital droplet PCR.
There is currently no registered fungicide treatment for ALS ALS on sunflower. The efficacy of fungicides and a bio-control product for the control of Alternaria leaf blight during field trials. Three field trials have been/will be done in 2014/2015 and 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 seasons. Findings from this research will determine which fungicide or spray program can be used to minimize the Alternaria in the field and on the seed. This research will also most importantly quantify the losses in yield caused by ALS (seed mass, yield mass, seed vigor and health etc.).
Oilseeds South African Sunflower Crop Quality Survey
This was the fifth annual national sunflower crop quality survey performed by The Southern African Grain Laboratory NPC.
During the harvesting season, a representative sample of each delivery of sunflower seeds at the various silos was taken according to the prescribed grading regulations. The sampling procedure as well as a copy of the grading regulations form part of the report. One hundred and seventy six composite sunflower samples, representing the different production regions, were analysed for quality. The samples were graded, milled and chemically analysed for moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre as well as ash content.
The goal of this crop quality survey is the compilation of a detailed database, accumulating quality data collected over several seasons on the commercial national sunflower crop, which is essential in assisting with decision making processes. The results are available on the SAGL website. The hard copy reports are distributed to Directly Affected Groups and interested parties. The report is also available for download in a PDF format from the website.
In addition to the quality information, production figures (obtained from the Crop Estimates Committee (CEC)) relating to hectares planted, tons produced, and yields obtained on a national as well as provincial basis, over an eleven-season period, are provided in this report. SAGIS (South African Grain Information Service) supply and demand information, including import and export figures over several seasons are provided in table and graph format.
The report of the Evaluation of sunflower cultivars 2016/2017 season conducted by the ARC-Grain Crops Institute in collaboration with Agricol, Pannar, Pioneer and AGT is also included in this report, as is the national grading regulations as published in the Government Gazette No. 45 of 22 January 2016.
Summary of results
Eighty five percent (150) of the 176 samples analysed for the purpose of this survey were graded as Grade FH1 and 26 of the samples were downgraded to COSF (Class Other Sunflower Seed). The percentage of FH1 samples showed an increase compared to the 78% of the previous season and is similar to the 86% of the 2014/2015 season.
- Five samples were downgraded as a result of a combination of the percentage damaged sunflower seed exceeding the maximum permissible deviation of 10% as well as the presence of an undesired odour.
- Seventeen of the samples were downgraded as a result of the percentage of either the screenings or the collective deviations or a combination of both exceeding the maximum permissible deviations of 4% and 6% respectively.
- Two samples were downgraded as a result of a combination of the foreign matter and collective deviations exceeding the maximum permissible deviations of 4% and 6% respectively.
- The remaining two samples were downgraded as a result of a combination of one or more of the following deviations exceeding the maximum permissible deviation: percentage damaged sunflower seed, percentage sclerotia, percentage collective deviations as well as the presence of an undesired odour.
The Free State province (76 samples) reported the highest weighted average percentage screenings namely 2.31%, followed by North West (N = 76) and Limpopo (N = 11) provinces with 2.16% and 1.94% respectively. Gauteng (three samples) reported the lowest average percentage screenings of 1.65%. Last season, Gauteng reported the highest average percentage screenings. The weighted national average was 2.18% compared to the 2.34% of the previous season.
The highest weighted percentage foreign matter (3.71%) was reported on the samples from Gauteng. The Free State and North West provinces averaged 0.98% and 1.09% respectively. The lowest average percentage was found in Mpumalanga, namely 0.83%. The RSA average of 1.06% was the lowest of the five seasons for which the crop quality survey has been conducted.
The number of samples received for this survey that contained sclerotia from the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, increased from 18 samples (10%) in the previous season, to 28 samples (16%) this season. Fourteen of these samples originated in the Free State province, 13 in North West and one in Mpumalanga. The highest percentage (5.52%) was present on a sample from North West, this was the only sample that exceeded the maximum permissible deviation of 4%. Weighted average levels ranged from 0.06% in the Free State to 0.18% in North West. The national average of 0.11% was slightly higher than the 0.04% of the previous two seasons.
Test weight does not form part of the grading regulations for sunflower seed in South Africa. An approximation of the test weight of South African sunflower seeds is provided in Table 3 for information purposes. The g/1 L filling weight of sunflower seed were determined by means of the Kern 222 apparatus. The test weight was extrapolated by means of the following formulas obtained from the Test Weight Conversion Chart for Sunflower Seed, Oil of the Canadian Grain Commission: y = 0.1936x + 2.2775 (138 to 182 g/0.5 L) and y = 0.1943x + 2.1665 (183 to 227 g/0.5 L). Please see also Graph 19 for a comparison of the test weight per province over the last five seasons.
The nutritional component analyses, namely crude protein, -fat, -fibre and ash are reported as % (g/100g) on an "as received" or "as is" basis. The graphs provide comparisons between provinces for the nutritional components discussed above.
The role of seedling diseases in poor establishment of sunflower in South Africa
Poor establishment has been identified as one of the important constraints in sunflower production in South Africa. Although the contribution of other factors such as seedling vigour, seedbed preparation and soil temperature to poor establishment have been investigated, there is no information on the role of seedling diseases as a production constraint in sunflower production in South Africa. The main aim of this study is to determine the incidence of seedling diseases of sunflower and the major causal organisms associated with these diseases, as well as the efficacy of the standard seed treatment to control the most important pathogens. The first phase of the project involved surveys and sampling of diseased sunflower seedlings and preliminary characterization of fungi associated with diseased seedlings. The current progress report includes results of the molecular characterisation of species within Diaporthe, Macrophomina, Pythium and Rhizoctonia and also pathogenicity tests conducted with these fungi. The effect of the standard seed treatment on survival, growth, cotyledon, hypocotyl and root rot severity was also determined for all the species within Diaporthe, Macrophomina, Pythium and Rhizoctonia included in the pathogenicity tests. All the trials were repeated twice so that it will not be necessary to repeat them again during the next reporting period. As mentioned in the previous report, Diaporthe spp. were often isolated from the hypocotyls of seedlings and occurred most frequently in sunflower seedlings collected from localities in the Free State, Limpopo and North West provinces. Molecular characterisation confirmed that three Diaporthe spp. were associated with sunflower seedlings viz Diaporthe ambigua, D. curucrbitae and D. miriciae, with D. curcurbitae being the most prominent species isolated. Of the 63 isolates characterised, only one was D. ambigua, 44 were D. curcurbitae and 18 were D. miriciae. Since the identification of Diaporthe species is very complex and require the sequencing of at least 4 to 7 gene areas, the identifications are currently finalised in collaboration with CBS in the Netherlands to ensure the correct identification of the species associated with sunflower in South Africa. The effect of 50 isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina, to cause both lesions on seedling stems and to reduce survival and growth and cause cotyledon, hypocotyl and root rot was evaluated under glasshouse conditions. The efficacy of the standard seed treatment when the fungus was inoculated in the soil was also determined. The percentage of stems that were lesioned varied from 0.0 to 72.1%. However, the survival, growth, hypocotyl and cotyledon rot severity of seedlings in inoculated and non-inoculated soil did not differ significantly. Root rot severity was also very low, but was significantly higher in inoculated compared to non-inoculated soil. One of the isolates (F275AX) caused significant reduction in survival (40.8%) and seed treatment significantly increased survival (71.7%) in inoculated soil. The 71.7% survival with seed treatment in inoculated soil was still significantly lower than the 94.2% for treated seed in non-inoculated soil and showed that for a very virulent isolate, seed treatment did not result in satisfactory survival. Root rot severity, although low, was also not significantly reduced with seed treatment and this may be the reason why the fungus was isolated quite frequently from seedling roots during the survey. Although most of the isolates obtained during the survey were isolated from roots and hypocotyls, it appeared from the pathogenicity tests that aboveground symptoms were more severe than root rot symptoms. It is also important to note that the fungus was frequently obtained from localities in the Free State, North West and Limpopo and from sunflower seedlings following crops such as maize, sunflower and sorghum. The number of Pythium isolates obtained during the 2014/15 and 2015/16 surveys were quite low. However, six species were identified with molecular characterization. Pythium spp. that were isolated during the surveys were identified as P. acanthicum, P. carolinianum, P. irregulare, P. middletonii, P. nunn and P. ultimum var. ultimum. Pythium acanthicum were mostly obtained from seedlings from Limpopo planted after sorghum, but also from seedlings from the Free State and North West provinces. Pythium carolinianum and P. middletonii was obtained only from seedlings from Limpopo and P. irregulare and P. nunn only from seedlings from the Free State, whereas P. ultimum var. ultimum was recovered from seedlings from both the Free State and Limpopo provinces. In the pathogenicity test, P. irregulare significantly reduced survival and both P. irregulare and P. nunn significantly reduced growth of seedlings. Pythium irregulare, P. nunn and P. ultimum var. ultimum caused significant cotyledon and root rot and seed treatment significantly reduced cotyledon and root rot caused by P. irregular and P. nunn, but not root rot caused by P. ultimum var. ultimum. It was mentioned in the previous progress report that Rhizoconia spp. were isolated at higher frequencies during the 2015/16 compared to the 2014/15 survey and were isolated from seedlings from all the provinces.
The molecular characterization identified the Rhizoctonia isolates as R. solani AG 1-1B, AG-2-2IIIB, AG-3, AG-4HGI, AG-4HGIII, Rhizoctonia AG-A, AG-Ba, AG-Bo, AG-F, AG-G and Rhizoctonia zeae. Interesting was that AG-2-2IIIB was isolated only from seedlings from Marble Hall in Limpopo, and AH-4HGI only from seedlings planted after millet in Potchefstroom and AG-4HGIII only from seedlings planted after millet in Potchefstroom and sorghum in Mpumalanga. Only one isolate of AG-3 was obtained from sunflower planted after dolicos bean in Potchefstroom. It appears as if the preceding crop may have had a very important impact on the Rhizoctonia AGs that were isolated from sunflower. Rhizoctonia solani AG-1-1B was mostly isolated from fields where maize was the preceding crop and this anastomosis group was isolated from the Free State, North West and Limpopo provinces. The pathogenicity tests conducted by us showed that AG-1-1B, AG-2-2IIIB, AG-3, AG-4HGI and AG-4HGIII significantly reduced survival of seedlings with the most virulent being AG-1-1B, AG-2-2IIIB and AG-4HGI. Although the standard seed treatment significantly increased survival of seedlings in soil inoculated with these three anastomosis groups, the survival of seedlings from untreated seed in soil inoculated with AG-1-1B, AG-2-2IIB and AG-4HGI was still significantly lower than survival of seedlings from treated seed planted in non-inoculated soil. This was particularly clear for seedlings in soil inoculated with AG-4HGI. The binucleate Rhizoctonia AG-A, AG-Ba, AG-Bo, AG-F and AG-G did not cause a significant reduction in survival and the same was reported for R. zeae. The research for the next reporting period will include final molecular characterisation of species within Fusarium, Alternaria, Bipolaris and Phoma and also pathogenicity and seed treatment tests similar to the trials conducted for the fungi listed above. The survey results showed that many fungal species including important pathogens are associated with sunflower seedlings and that certain fungi were more prevalent in certain localities than others. This clearly shows that seedling diseases are caused by a complex of pathogens. Evaluating the pathogenicity and virulence of the different fungi obtained from sunflower seedlings during the surveys, as well as the efficacy of the standard seed treatment to control the complex of pathogens is very important in order to determine a strategy to improve establishment of sunflower in South Africa. Proper establishment of seedlings is very important to improve yield and an essential component of sustainable production. Many of the pathogens identified have a broad host range such as P. irregulare, P. ultimum var. ultimum and M. phaseolina. Since crop rotation is such an important part of conservation agriculture, crops that are susceptible to some of the same pathogens such as maize, sunflower and soybean are often rotated in the same field. In order to protect seedlings against these pathogens with a broad host range, effective seed treatment can play a significant role and should be included in an integrated management strategy against soilborne diseases of sunflower.
National soybean cultivar trials
A total of 35 commercially certified cultivars were evaluated, for the 2017/18 seasons in 21 field trials representing the cool, moderate and warm areas. Only GMO cultivars were included in the trials and Roundup applications were used during the execution of the trials. A randomised complete-block design with three replicates was used for all field trials. Date of flowering (50% flowering), date of harvest maturity, length of growing season, plant height, pod height, green stem, lodging, shattering, 100 seeds mass, undesirable seed and the yield probability of cultivars calculated. Yield probabilities served as guideline for cultivar selection.
The mean number of days from planting to 50% flowering of cultivars for the cool, moderate and warm areas were 81, 69 and 49 days respectively. The overall mean yield was 2 779kg ha-1 for the cooler areas, 3 333kg ha-1 for the moderate and 3 622kg ha-1 for the warm areas. Cultivars with a high yield probability are important in the selection of cultivars by producers due to the reliability of the expected future yield. Cultivars which had high yield probabilities over the reporting period were PAN 1521 R and PAN 1623 R for all the production areas. DM 5953 RSF and NS 6448 R for the cooler areas, NS 5909 R and DM 6.8i RR for the moderate and warm areas as well as SSS 6560 (tuc) for the warmer areas.
The staff and webmaster, Tigme.com, paid significant attention to our website to improve its user-friendly approach and further improve its efficacy as communication tool.
Information available on the web page include the guidelines and application forms for research projects and bursaries, information about achievement awards, crop estimates and minutes of forum meetings.
The publication of research results on the web page enjoyed continuous attention during the year.
The OAC/OPDT is satisfied with the progress and the utility value of the website.
During the 2017/18 financial year the General Manager, Mr Nico Hawkins, attended four workgroup and forum meetings where SAGIS' information was presented and distributed to all role players.
SAGIS' Board of Directors during the 2017/18 financial year
Mr Gerhard Scholtemeijer and Mr De Wet Boshoff with Ms Marie van der Merwe as their alternate represented the Oil and Protein Seeds Development Trust and oilseeds industry on SAGIS' Board of Directors.
Dr John Purchase and Mr Anton Nebe were the Chairperson and Vice Chairperson of SAGIS' Board.
Co-workers Commodity 28 February 2015 29 February 2016 28 February 2017 Canola 28 26 28 Groundnuts 83 82 81 Soybeans 108 109 105 Sunflower 105 107 106 Total 324 324 320
The publication dates are available on SAGIS' website. On 28 February 2018 the actual number of returns from registered co-workers was 79 returns for the oilseed industry.
Inspections for oilseeds
Visits at co-workers
The following visits were made at co-workers of oilseeds per commodity:
Commodity Commodity Audited
Whole Grain and Oilseeds
– Canola 22 – Groundnuts 55 – Soybeans 90 – Sunflower 89 PRODUCTS
– Oilseeds Milling Industry 40 – Oilseeds Products: Imports / Exports 16 Total 312
The following physical stocktaking of oilseeds was done from 1 March 2017 until 28 February 2018:
Physical stocktaking per commodity Canola Groundnuts Soybeans Sunflower 31 154 52 805 445 311 118 449
SAGIS appreciates the support and co-operation of all the role-players.
We wish to express our gratitude especially towards the Members of the Oil and Protein Seeds Development Trust for their continued support, financially and otherwise.
Generic marketing of soybeans in human nutrition
The project will only commence during the 2018/2019 financial year.
Cultivar evaluation of oil and protein seeds in the winter rainfall area: Western and Southern Cape (canola)
National cultivar trials
During the 2016 season, a total of 19 cultivars were tested in the cultivar evaluation programme (three cultivars alternated due to insufficient seed). There were six conventional, nine CL (Clearfield®) and four TT (Triazine tolerant) cultivars included in the programme. All 19 cultivars were hi-bred cultivars. Two new CL and one new conventional cultivar were evaluated.
The Western Cape Department of Agriculture conducted a range of cultivar trials during the 2016 season in the Swartland and Southern Cape.
In the Southern Cape eight trials were planted and the five data sets were used (bad establishment occurred at Roodebloem and with herbicide damage at Tygerhoek). In the Swartland eight trials were planted of which only one trial was not harvested (uneven and late germination).
The 2016 season in the Swartland was characterized by extremely dry conditions during May. In the Swartland, good rain occurred on 26 March and 22 April. Canola planted late in April and early May established well with high seed yields. In the Southern Cape, average rainfall occurred for April to September.
In the Swartland, average yields were 2 746kg ha-1 (1 320kg ha-1 in 2015). The high yielding trials in the Swartland germinated from the end of April to early May. The trial average ranged between 1 835kg ha-1 for Philadelphia and 3 703kg ha-1 for Langgewens. The hi-bred cultivar Diamond, was the top performer in the conventional group for the Swartland area. Diamond was followed by Tango (2 858kg ha-1) and CB Agamax (2 829kg ha-1) and Hyola 50 (2 828kg ha-1).
The two new CL cultivars, 45Y90 and 44Y91 gave the highest seed yield within their group, (3 038kg ha-1 and 2 936kg ha-1). The commercial CL cultivar 44Y89 (2 901kg ha-1) produced the 3rd highest yield in the CL group. The seed yield of Diamond, 45Y90 and 44Y91 did not differ significantly. In the TT group, the difference in yield between the highest and lowest producing cultivar was only 15kg ha-1 for Hyola 559, Hyola 555 and CB Atomic HT.
In the Rûens, the test averages ranged between 2 378kg ha-1 on Witsand (Witsand was under seeded with lucerne) and 3 278kg ha-1 at Swellendam. The average yield was 2 885kg ha-1 in comparison to 1 320kg ha-1 in 2015. The conventional cultivar Diamond (3 305kg ha-1) gave the highest average yield in the conventional group and was followed by Belinda (3 207kg ha-1). In 2015 it was the other way round. The new CL cultivar 45Y91 (3 368kg ha-1) had the highest average yield in the CL group and in the Southern Cape trials. The (new) cultivar 44Y90 (3 210kg ha-1) was 2nd in the CL group but did not differ significantly from 45Y91. In the TT group, CB Atomic HT (2 592kg ha-1) had the highest yield followed by Hyola 555 (2 517kg ha-1) and Hyola 559 (2 489kg ha-1).
Biological control of sclerotinia of sunflower
A progress report in respect of the 2017/2018 financial year is still awaited.
The evaluation of locally produced full-fat canola and canola oilcake meal as protein sources in diets for slaughter ostriches
The canola oilcake meal trial follows the same methodology and layout as the full-fat canola trial described above. Trials are still underway with good progress being made.
Progress to date
Trial 1 is underway and running without any major complications. The trial started at onset of the starter phase with 230 chicks that were 84 days of age. The trial are currently in the grower phase with 198 birds, some mortalities occurred during the starter phase mostly due to leg injuries and ingestion of foreign objects like stones and sticks. Birds are growing according to expectance and numbers are stable. The birds will be changed over to a finisher diet on the 18th of July 2017. The slaughter date has been finalized for the 17th of October 2017.
Trial 2 is completed and the trial was conducted without any complications. Data were collected and will be analysed by end of July 2017. Writing up of the paper for this trial will then start.
The trials are being conducted at the Oudtshoorn Research Farm. Uncontrollable factors associated with ostrich farming such as high mortalities, disease outbreaks and hatching problems result in time frames acting as a guide and not definite certainties. Time frames will also depend on the availability of infrastructure as well as birds.
The growth trial on five different canola oilcake meal inclusion levels in the diet started in November 2016 (Chicks hatched (395 chicks) in November 2016 and Growth trial started in February 2017) and will run until September 2017 when the animals will be slaughtered at a registered abattoir and post slaughter data collected.
The preference trials with five canola inclusion levels in the diet, was conducted in May 2017 and June 2017.
From September 2017, data analyses and lab work will commence on the collected samples and will be completed in June 2018.
Statistical analyses on data will be performed from January until June 2018.
Thesis writing for the canola oilcake trial will start in February 2018 and concluded in September 2018.